Frontyard Sense/Backyard Science IV

Frontyard Sense/Backyard Science IV


Why For:
Forever why does the automobile gas gauge read beyond the full mark once you’ve filled your gasoline tank taking an eternity it seems to start going down? But lo and behold, once past the half-filled mark, the gas gauge needle promptly races down to the empty mark.
Running on Empty

As we traverse the highways and by-ways, it is comforting once we’ve filled up with gas and actually have traveled a good distance, the gas needle has barely moved downwards. But then, once below the half-filled mark the gauge accelerates faster than your foot on the gas pedal does, disheartening enough to make you start looking for another gas station to fill up again.

One would think there is a defect in the design of automotive fuel gauges, but car manufacturers actually devised the gas gauge to read this way intentionally.

First off, the gas tank is purposefully designed to hold more gasoline than the needle gauge registers, in which the actual gas level will submerge the float. In today’s cars, an electronic sensor monitors the fuel level. The sensor is composed of the float and linkage to a variable resistor. With this resistance, a value is recorded visually on a fuel gauge’s needle mark as the float moves up and down.

Filling the tank to capacity, the gasoline level is higher than the float, so therefore the float only begins registering once the fluid level has surfaced the float and begins going below the float as gas is consumed. Of course from then on the float rides on the surface of the lowering gas fluid level.

The float will continue to register lower fluid as the gas is consumed until it is stopped by a barrier that will make the gauge’s needle pin read empty. There is however a remaining level of gasoline in the tank beyond the float barrier that the float can no longer register.

The reason it is designed this way is to avoid stranded motorists that allowed the tank to become fully empty once the gauge read empty. Essentially, the empty mark on the gauge is a warning that you are nearing being totally empty and it is high time you reach a gas station.

Today’s cars are mainly fuel injected replacing the more traditional carburetor. When a fuel injected vehicle strands you on the side of the road due to running out of gas, it calls for more than simply walking or hitchhiking to the nearest gas station, to fill an empty container to take back to the car and pour into the gas tank getting you going again. Each fuel injector would have to be primed of any trapped air that might have been injected into the injectors, to make them viable enough again to begin properly injecting measured fuel.

Engineering vehicle designers know that the average motorists gets very antsy once the vehicle gauge is nearing or is reading empty and will promptly pull over to fill up, but even if the fuel gauge reads empty there is still gas left for safety measures.

For those brave at heart souls, try it out…see for yourself that you can still drive your car beyond the empty marker, but beware…don’t stretch it. You are nearing actual zero fuel level.


Why in the world (literally) would man begin to believe that the earth rotates about an imaginary axis instead of being static? After all, religious logic had held the world view belief that all things rotated around the earth. It was quite obvious wasn’t it, for while an earthling observer remained in one position all the celestial objects like the sun, moon and stars are the ones that appeared to rotate as they crossed the skies?

With the development of science principles, man began to realize it was actually Earth that was doing the rotation about its axis. But it was awful hard to give a valid observable demonstration until the Foucault pendulum came along in 1851.   

We now know for sure, the earth rotates about an axis due to the Coriolis effect, which reveals an apparent path of deviation from the one Earth would follow in a fixed frame of reference. Measurements of Earth’s flattening poles and the bulging of its equator give credence to the physics of an oblate sphere (Earth’s shape) rotating. To note, Coriolis forces are responsible for the familiar hurricane swirling pattern within a weather pressure system.

You yourself can prove the earth rotates with a simple apparatus known as the Foucault pendulum that oscillates at a rotating rate dependent on latitude. To make the pendulum outdoors, wire a heavier-weighted bob (a pendulum weight) to at least 10 feet of metal wire affixed to a sturdy object like a thick, strong and straight branch growing parallel to the ground. The longer the wire, the longer and slower the detectable rotation will be.

Suspend the fashioned pendulum in a vertical plane perpendicular to a ground surface and it will swing with time due to the earth’s rotation and inertia. Be sure there is some sort of measuring reference points below the bob on the ground to detect movement. The degree of rotation per hour will be dependent on your latitude. Also ensure the whole assemblage is not affected by the breeze.

It will appear that the pendulum is moving, but in fact it is remaining stationary over the earth while the much more massive Earth is doing all the movement rotating about its axis underneath the pendulum bob. One can also make a small Foucault pendulum where the pendulum’s moment of inertia movement may not be as visible, but its lines drawn in sand will reveal its movement.

The pendulum was named after its inventor, the French physicist Leon Foucault, who was also noted as one of the first humans to be photographed by Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre, the inventor of Daguerreotype photography. Foucault’s findings in other physics fields also proved light had wave properties.

The Foucault pendulum works, (as long as frictional forces are at a minimum and there is no torque exerted by the hanger wire) by planer oscillations. We won’t go into the elaborate trigonometry and geometry details but we will show Foucault’s trigonometric explanation as displayed in the illustration below.

While the pendulum (P) swings in a fixed plane about its hanger (H) the earth planes rotate. The tension in the wire FT is always the same magnitude as the force of gravity Fg. If one was observing all this at the North Pole, as the earth rotates the pendulum would appear to oscillate back to its original position in a twenty-four hour span.

Rather than a straight line, the earth’s rotation projects an arc onto the pendulum’s path, but in Foucault’s trigonometric sine law equation, this is readily explained.

In his equation T=24/sin α (θ), Foucault found that the amount of time (T) is derived in hours of a daily 24 hour period over the exact latitude (θ) times its sine angle. At the North Pole, latitude is 90 degrees, therefore the sine of 90 is 1, hence from the equation, it takes exactly 24 hours for the pendulum to fully circle. Of course the Foucault pendulum would not work at the equator where latitude is zero degrees. The sine as 0 degrees is zero. Therefore it would take infinity for the pendulum to fully circle.
The original Foucault Pendulum

Foucault first set up his pendulum at the Pantheon in Paris where it remained until moved to the Musée des Arts et Métiers in 2000. Unfortunately in 2010, the cable suspending the bob failed, dropping the weighted bob causing irreparable damage to the pendulum and the marbled flooring.

Why does the moon, whether full, or in its slimmest of crescent shaped form seem to pursue you around when driving at night. No matter where you drive or how many turns you take, the moon appears to be following you as if you’re towing it.

This moon chase all has to do with the phenomenon known as the parallax effect, which is used in astronomy to determine how changes in apparent position of a heavenly body may be influenced by the changing position of the observer.

This shift in position becomes greater the closer an observed object is. To prove this with one eye closed, line your thumb up with your one-eyed sight of vision to an object on the opposite wall like a light switch or small hanging picture. With your thumb 12 inches (~30 cm) away from your open eye, move only your head from side-to-side while still focusing on the wall object. Now line your thumb up with your one-eyed sight to the wall object at arm’s length and move your head from side-to-side. If you noticed, the distance between your thumb and wall object was much greater closer up than at arm’s length.

The same principle is happening with the moon. Although it is massive it is also very distant, so appears to not move as much up in the night sky.

To nullify the parallax effect, one would need closer reference points such as trees or a mountain range upon the horizon as the moon is just rising. The tree line working as a reference point with the moon just behind the treetops betrays the moon’s true distance, so as the tree outlines go by in your driving, the moon appears to go by with them just as well.

In addition to, objects closest to you whir by in a blur such as the road stripes. Objects along the road whiz by. Buildings further back streak by a little slower, the mountain backdrops go by even slower and the ascended moon ever slowest.

The 15th century Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe utilized the parallax effect to come up with his mural quadrant in calculating astronomical motion. This mural quadrant’s mathematical calculations were crucial in formulating the laws of planetary motion by Johannes Kepler.

Why do we think fish or snakes can’t sleep because their eyes cannot close? Actually that question may be false twofold, for indeed fish and snakes do sleep and elasmobranchs, fish such as sharks, rays and skates do have opaque eyelids known as nictitating membranes.

Sleep is a relative term that we only want to equate to humans. If humans do it and do it in one certain way, then that is how other life must do it as well. That is so not true.

There are many ways fish and snakes sleep or receive the benefits from what we define as a good night’s rest. Pelagic fish or open sea fish like tuna or marlin never cease swimming but do blank out while swimming that is equivalent to our own sleep mode operandi. A lot of sharks must also continuously swim in order to breathe creating a continuous flow current of water to jetty over their gills in taking up dissolved oxygen.

Other fish will molt themselves into a protective mucous cocoon shutting down active brain activity. Wrasses and parrot fish do this. Most fish though, once brain activity shuts down, go into a trance-like stupor, but still having the brain active for approaching danger.
Cocooned parrot fish

As in regards to snakes, they sleep quite a lot, especially after a meal by the brain directing bodily sleep activity.

Actually, come to think of it, fish and snakes probably wonder how humans sleep with unplugged ears…     

Home Projections:
When your kids are bored stuck in the house, or simply the kid in you is bored, a few things to do around the house to break the monotony are listed below. These little projects only prove that the science in you can venture very far without ever leaving the abode.

To build the simplest of rockets without any dangerous propellant all you need is a straw and a 3x5 inch or 7.62x12.7 centimeter index card.

First, cut the card into three equal halves. Next, with scotch tape take two pieces and affix them together with a half inch or one centimeter overlap to make them into a sturdy loop. With the last piece do the same thing making a smaller loop by taping the two ends together, again with an overlap. Without the overlap, if you tape the loop end to end the whole loop will not be as robust.

Finally, tape one end of the straw on the inside of the smaller loop flush with one edge then tape the other end of the straw inside the larger loop with the end of the straw flush with the outer edge of the loop. Your finished project should appear as my girls’ hoop gliding rockets in the photo below.

Once you’ve finished making your rocket it is now time for take-off. To launch it, hold the straw in the middle with the smaller hoop at the front and with both hoops on top. Held just above your shoulder as you would a paper airplane toss it with a slightly upwards angle. You may be surprised how well it does fly. You may even be more surprised how further it flies once youve done a couple of practice tosses.


How can a couple of odd sized hoops and a straw fly? Whether it is a straw with two hoops or a plane with wings it all has to do with aerodynamics. Both are heavier than air, but when it comes to the motion of air as both aircraft fly through, both are exerting lift in the air turbulence they create.

Your toss is the thrust that overcomes weight creating lift as air travels under the hoops. The two different sizes of the hoops keep the straw balanced with the larger hoop at the end creating drag or air resistance as does the tail on an airplane. This helps lift the front end. The smaller hoop ensures your rocket will stay on course and not erratically veer. Of course the two paper hoops are heavier than the straw, but their mass does not make the rocket turn over because generally all objects of varying weight fall at the same velocity and simply that since you attached everything together, it is behaving as one unit of mass.

For this next project all you need is a bar of Ivory soap and a microwave. Put the unwrapped soap bar on a large (make that a very large) microwavable plate. The plate can be either ceramic or paper. Set the timer for 1½-2 minutes then see what you got. What you get is one massive fluffy soap pillow. The bar fluffed up, but is still usable soap.

So what happened? Ivory soap during production has air pumped in and whipped up into the soap ingredients’ matrix. This forms tiny locked in air pockets that also gives Ivory soap bars the characteristic to float as the entrapped air makes the bar less dense than water. Entraining air into the mix, as is usually the case in voila discovery moments, occurred by accident.

Back in the day, an employee going on his lunch break forgot to turn off a mixing machine in the production assembly. Whipping so much air into the soap mix, they found out the bars made from the mishap seemed to be no different from the normal manufactured soap bars, except for the fact the air entrained bars floated. Proctor and Gamble decided to put the air bars on the market and received so much positive feedback from the public on having their bar of soap float in their bath that the company made the process permanent.



Now, let’s go back to our little experiment. As the bar is heated in the microwave the ingredients in the bar soften. During manufacturing there is entrapped water in the tiny air pockets that vaporizes once heated aiding in further emulsifying the softening solid ingredients. The heated air expands throughout the softened matrix causing air molecules to accelerate in rising velocities which also increases volume. During expansion, the pliable soap material is carried with the air molecules creating the overall expansion effect.

Gas temperature and volume increases are directly proportional as dictated by Charles’ Law (V/T = k). The discoverer and publisher of this in 1802 by the French natural philosopher, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac has nothing to do with a Charlie, but Gay-Lussac named it after the French scientist/mathematician, Jacques Charles for his work in the 1780s on the topic.

In our last little experimental project we’re going to make clouds, but first a little insight on how clouds form.

The earth’s surface is warmed by the sun causing exposed water to the sun rays to vaporize into gas form and rise with the surrounding heated air. As the vapor rises, once hitting certain elevations, the surrounding higher atmosphere is cooler halting rising expansion causing the vapored water to begin condensing once beyond the dew point.

The dew point is a term dependent on the temperature of water vapor’s proximate surrounding temperature and ambient relative humidity. If conditions are right, with temperature reaching water’s dew point at a constant barometric pressure, the water vapor in the air will condense out forming the initial base of a cloud. Tiny particles, such as dust, but unfortunately now more and more of pollution and smoke particles gives aid to water particles to attach to while condensing.

In this initial phase, the water vapor coalescing scatters light rays in the color spectrum mixing them giving a white appearance as the white light is reflected to the observer. The more the water vapor condenses onto itself the thicker the clouds get where light cannot penetrate all the way through casting a gray appearance. When the cloud is really saturated with condensation, water droplets form giving a dark blue appearance until gravity takes over influencing the water droplets to fall out as rain.

Now we’re going to recreate this process of natural cloud formation at home. To perform this simple experiment all one needs is a tall clear tumbler or drinking glass, a thin paper plate, access to very hot water, ice cubes or a big chunk of ice and a match.

Instructions are to fill the tumbler with hot water about half full. Next, put the ice cubes on the paper plate and set the ice filled plate on top of the tumbler, then simply watch for a few minutes to witness cloud formation.



Warmer air from the hot water will rise as convection currents then sink again once it meets cold air generated from the ice. To really get the cloud formation rolling, strike the match and let it burn for a few seconds, blow it out then quickly place the burnt, but still hot match between the lip of the tumbler and paper plate. Lift the plate off and watch your cloud quickly disperse out. 

Not So:
We all appear to have some level of intrigue today of an animal that has never been discovered, or even some creature seen that can’t be explained. Chupacabra comes to mind…that haunting creature that was first seen in Latin America and described as if it was the monster from the movie ‘Alien’ with projecting fangs seeking livestock, primarily goats to drain them of blood during the dark of night.

Unfortunately the creature claimed to be Chupacabra sited, photographed and filmed in various southern Texas regions take on the form more of a stray dog, or coyote and once even a raccoon with a serious case of scabies or mange exhibiting no hair and disease affected skin.

These creatures we’re about to discourse on most certainly will not be found in your backyard nor your front yard, merely because they do not exist.

The photo above was taken of a dead creature found in the plains of Africa. I’m quite sure it stirred up the superstitions of the local natives. Turns out though, it was a newborn baboon that had been killed by a bite through the skull. The bite was from a baboon as male baboons from time to time will practice infanticide to accelerate a female baboon’s estrus cycle where he can then mate.


The above video does appear to be the image of some unknown creature that was found in Panama by a group of teenaged boys in 2009. They claim two stories.

The first is that they found it alive near a cave entrance, felt threatened then killed it by throwing rocks and sticks.

The second story by the teenagers, which is more believable, is that they were wading through a shallow river when one felt something grabbing at his legs. They then knocked it out of the water and began throwing rocks and sticks at it. Once they felt it was beaten to death they threw it back into the water, then hurriedly fetched a camera coming back a bit later to snap photos that they posted on the internet. It immediately went viral becoming known as the Panama ET.

Turns out, it was merely a sloth that had died near or in the river where the current had sloughed off the sloth’s fur. The flowing water also smoothed out the skin almost giving it a glowing texture. Poor fella, with their slow metabolism and mannerisms, sloths are totally harmless beings. I put sloths in a special nook right in the center of the heart.   

There have been cave dweller creature reports from around the world. One infamous one is in Afghanistan when two American soldiers were killed in 2002 from a cave dweller while trapped in cavernous tunnels. A third one managed to escape the encounter but was slashed with fang wounds. Purportedly he acquired rabies from the ordeal but recovered.

Although now defunct, another infamous cave dweller tale happened in the United Arab Emirates. In a cavern near Ras al-Khaimah, legend has it that a young man went out to explore and photograph the cave. He never returned. A search party was organized the next day where they found his body in the cave along some rock crevices. Once developing the negatives of the film taken from his camera, the image below from his last negative was in this photo.

Turns out this story was more than any legend, it was a hoax. The above photo is actually of a carving display at ‘Cheddar Showcaves & Gorge’ in Somerset, England. The carving, as part of a tourist attraction has a strobe effect and when a picture is taken gives the darkened allure of a cave environment. Someone in the Middle East, who had traveled to England where the photo was snapped, apparently did not speculate that Englanders might also travel to the UAE, whereas an Englishman familiar with ‘Cheddar Showcaves & Gorge’ did indeed spill the beans of the hoax.


Pictured above is a decayed sea carcass that washed ashore on the New Zealand Pukehina Beach shoreline. It measured 30 ft/ 9.1 m long with a mouth that once housed dozens of spiked teeth.

Sea monster speculation became rife with some even suggesting it was a prehistoric beast such as an ichthyosaur. The video of it, which is below went viral within just a few days stirring the imaginations of us all in thinking there’s more to life than simply what meets the casual eye.


Unfortunately for the devout, once a few oceanographers observed the carcass, the resounding conclusion is that it is the remains of an orca. It’s a killer whale that had died with the corpse floating the ocean seas months on end as it decayed until finally washing ashore to its final resting place. DNA sampling is currently underway to verify the conclusion.

Now this final drama in unnatural life remains unexplained…not…

The video below supposedly occurred in the Catalina region of Spain. It concerns the stumbling upon of what they called a “fallen angel.” Without a doubt the episode is well done and choreographed to be produced by amateurs.


However, the amateurs finally admitted it was a hoax and actually went into detail in the making of the film. They explain how the prosthetics and make-up were applied to appear like the angel. The eyes were reproduced just like the eyes of a deer when the pupils are hit with a light beam. Whatever though, their knowledge of special effects with only primitive equipment to work with, these amateurs should be highly recommended for the next horror movie.

Is So:
Now these next animals and fungi may not be found in your front or backyards, but they are indeed real. Actually, all of these below hail from someone’s yard and one of them is found quite commonly in my front, side and backyard during the summer months.

The photo above depicts the species Chrysocyon brachyurus commonly known as the manned wolf. Looking like a fox on stilts, it is only distantly related to foxes. In fact, it is only remotely related to any canid species, much like we are to monkeys.

The manned wolf comes from the tall grass savannahs of the Mato Grasso of Brazil into Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. It was once hunted down for its eyes considered to be good luck charms, but since its IUCN vulnerable classification, the South American governments, in particular Brazil are giving it more protective and consideration rights.

There are a little over seventy species of bioluminescent fungi found in temperate to tropical environs. Bioluminescence of fungi is continuous and occurs only in the living cells, but has no correlation with the structure of the cells. The lighting effect is usually greenish in light wavelength ranging anywhere from 520-530 nm (nanometers). Fungal bioluminescence comes from fruiting bodies and mycelia, or only in the spores of  Roridomyces roridus, or only in the sclerotia of the species Collybia tuberosa.







Bioluminescence occurs in fungi by the reduction of luciferin by a soluble reductase enzyme where it is further oxidized by the insoluble luciferase. This is what releases energy in the form of greenish or blue greenish light. Conditions affecting growth such as pH, temperature and lighting affects the quality of the bioluminescence’s intensity. This suggests a link to metabolic activity further suggesting the fungal bioluminescent pathway arose early in the evolution of mushrooms. 

Fungal luminescence appears to have beneficial qualities to the fungus, other life forms and the environment in that during luminescent manufacture, the complex carbohydrate lignin found in tree bark where fungus grows, is broken down into more accessible components for wildlife. Also, beneath dark forest canopies, bioluminescence aids as an attractant for animals like arthropods (insects, spiders) to find the glowing fruiting bodies to disperse and germinate fungal spores. On the opposite end, it also serves as a possible distractant to grazing animals which might otherwise feed on the fungus and the surrounding vegetation in open fields.

The photo below is of a cute little fellow known as the lowland streaked tenrec. Scientifically called, Hemicentetes semispinosus this little guy is no more than 6.5 in long/16.51 cm long and weighs only 7 oz/198.45 g. Tenrecs, including the lowland streaked all hail from the island of Madagascar.

Having a snout about as long as its legs, its tail is vestigial ending in a small stump. During colder times, this tenrec can lower its body temperature nearly to its environmental surroundings and still remain active as if it had a high metabolism.

A true insectivore, this burrowing little fella will also root for worms in the soil. Females have a way of communicating to their offspring by vibrating specialized quills on their mid dorsal region creating low pitched sounds. But all tenrecs make ‘crunch’ and ‘putt-putt’ noises when agitated.
Malayan Colugo

The photo above represents the colugo of Southeast Asian tropical rain forests. It represents an ancient lineage with only two surviving species left in the family, Cynocephalidae and order Dermoptera. Even though it is a placental mammal it shows marsupial traits in its infant upbringing. The young are born tiny and prematurely undeveloped clinging to the mother’s belly to suckle for the first six months of their life.

Colugos are gliders and are arboreal. But for a mammal living in trees, at 16 in/40 cm in length, are rather large and clumsy for that type of lifestyle. They also have no opposable thumb so are comparatively ungainly in their ascent up a tree trunk, therefore are very awkward climbers. To climb, they do so in using short hops while clinging to the tree bark with their sharp claws.

It is their ability to glide though that makes them an expert tree canopy dweller. Their gliding membrane, called a patagium allows them to glide up to 230 ft/70 m. With a well-developed stomach and long intestines their strict herbivore diet of leaves, flowers and sap are well capable of flushing out all the nutrients needed by this mammal.

Colugos are threatened primarily through habitat destruction and human hunting for their fur and meat. Also, through recent studies, analysis suggest that 90% of the Philippine eagle’s diet consist of colugos. But since Philippine eagles are critically endangered there is not that much a threat from eagles.

Believe it or not, it is now believed from DNA testing that the colugos closest living relative are the primates, which of course includes us.

The last unusual animal we’ll hit topic on is the star nosed mole that indeed does live in my front yard and backyard. I’ve collected many alive and dead ones while letting the live ones go.

The mole family, Talpidae holds a strange lot to begin with in these animals’ subterranean way of life, but the star nosed mole takes full honors in being the strangest mole. The star nosed mole (Condylura cristata), like any mole utilizing strong forelimbs and oversized clawed paws or hands, tunnels just below the ground’s surface in search of grub worms, insects and earthworms. Being fossorial and leading a subterranean existence, although they possess beady little eyes, moles are virtually blind. The star nosed however makes up for this with his nose.

Possessing 22 fleshy 0.3-.16 in/1-4 mm long tentacles, the star nosed mole has the most sensitive touch of any mammal in the world, for they are the only mammal to use electrical senses. Each tentacle is covered by 25,000 minute touch receptors known as Eimer’s organs with each organ handling a specific function. Some sense the microscopic texture of animate and inanimate objects, some detect the minute electrical fields put out by organisms while all can work at incredible speed giving the mole the opportunity to detect up to twelve objects per second.  

In addition to living the subterranean life, star nosed moles are also very aquatic detecting and munching on aquatic insects, insect larvae, leeches and even small fish.

This mole’s life span at most is up to four years and might be why I find dead ones around the yard. Perhaps when they are about to naturally expire they surface, for I certainly don’t use herbicides or pesticides.

# 9:
We’re going to discuss the number nine but first go through a little math course.

What do mathematicians do…the cliché answer is that they do math. That is kind of a (fun)damental reply at what they do, but it is much more than that. They also seek and see relevance beyond numbers.

We’ll start the explanation by posing an absolute twist.
  •          Pick any number; say you pick: ѵ = 44
  •          Add ten: ѵ = 44 + 10 = 54
  •          Double the result: 2ѵ = 54 + 54 = 108
  •          Subtract six: 2ѵ = 108 - 6 = 102
  •         Divide by two: 2 ѵ = 102 ÷ 2 = 51
  •         Take away the number you first picked: ѵ = 51 - 44 = 7
  •         The answer will always be seven.
No matter the number you first choose the answer will be seven. For us common folk we could never figure out why because we would approach the dilemma always by calculating numbers and that is the difference between us and the mathematician. The math professor sees insight without numbers and actually makes it more general, where we in crunching out numbers tend to want to make it more difficult.

Here is how a mathematician approaches complex numerical problems by breaking it down into simpler terms with objects we can see. We are going to go through the arithmetic trick again but this time not with numbers, but with symbols that we can see and relate to.
  • Pick a symbol; say you pick the peace sign:
  • Add ten:                **********
  • Double the result:   **********  **********
  •  Subtract six:          *******        *******
  • Divide by two:       *******
  • Take away the first symbol:  *******
Now you actually see what is happening and that is how mathematicians analytically dispose math problems. 

Math, whether manmade or manufactured by a god’s hand, is absolute in its results, but through relativity. It will never lie. Numbers are what makes our technology exist and perform and is the explanation of what is out there, what was and what will be. Numbers are magic, but the most magical number of all is # 9.

Just look at what transpires in its multiplication:

9x0=00
9x1=09
9x2=18
9x3=27
9x4=36
9x5=45
9x6=54
9x7=63
9x8=72
9x9=81
9x10=90

If you may note in the left hand column of the answers, each digit increases in descending order: 0,1,2,3… In the right hand column the answer digits decrease: 9,8,7,6… But just as well, if you start from the bottom and ascend up, the inverse applies where the left column digits now decrease and the right column now increases in sequence.

If we continue; 9x11=99; 9x12=108, 9x13=117, the sequence rule still applies. This sequence is infinite with the number nine. You might also note that when adding the digits from the answers together, they will always equal nine, such as: 9x2=18 where: 1+8=9 or 9x8=72 where: 7+2=9 or 9x10=90 where: 9+0=9.

You might say that’s fair enough for all the single digit multiples, but what about the double digits like 12? That surely doesn’t add to 9, such as 9x12=108 where: 10+8=18.

Ought oh, let’s correct that to express that all digits are singly added such as 9x12=108 where: 1+0+8=9. In understanding this, the nine sequence is infinite.

But in denoting all this, adding any digit(s) that are the answer to a number multiplied by 9 always equals a number nine multiple; 10+8=18 or 1+0+8=9, 9x55=495 49+5=54 or 4+9+5=18, 9x123=1107 11+0+7=18 or 1+1+0+7=9… 

Nature tends to revel in the marvels of nine’s pattern sequence. It is not the number nine itself per say, but its patterning of sequences. In utilizing the symmetry of sequences nature has come up with some intricate spiraling that can be mathematically predicted by the Fibonacci sequence rule.

The Fibonacci numbering and rule were utilized at the turn of the 13th Century by mathematician, Leonardo Pisano Bigollo, who was affectionately known in Italy as Fibonacci. The actual discovery was done by Indian mathematicians. Bigollo though, described them in his 1202 book ‘Liber Abaci.’

Fibonacci numbering is defined by a recurrence relation of an integer sequence.

Such as: 0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55…
The sequence is 0+1=1; 1+1=2; 2+1=3; 3+2=5; 5+3=8; 8+5=13…

In the sequence below ‘n’ represents the numbered terms starting at zero onwards. So, the term 6 on the ‘n’ sequence equals 8 which is just below ‘n’ 6 and is written as (xn) x6=8. Therefore the 6th term is the 4th term + the 5th term written as: x6 = x4 + x5.

n =
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
...
xn =
0
1
1
2
3
5
8
13
21
34
55
89
144
233
377
...

The above follows the Fibonacci rule: xn = xn-1 + xn=2 where xn is the term number in question, xn-1 is the term before it and xn-2 is the term before that.

So, if we follow this through with whole numbers we get: 
x6 = x6-1 + x6-2 = x5 + x3 = 5 + 3 = 8.  
      
We could go on with this through math expression in using the Fibonacci Golden rule in using random whole number sequences, but are going to halt here before we’re too sidetracked.

The whole point of all this is to lead to spiral patterns found in nature utilizing number 9 sequencing. The spiral below is produced from Fibonacci sequencing.

Circle sequences using 9 as the center point with whole number diameters and radii as in the circles below can predict spirals.


In flowering plants, bits of plant tissue form from small lumps called primordia, for it is the primordial beginning of plant rejuvenation. Plant parts like seeds, petals, sepals and stamen all start and grow from primordia lumps. The angle between successive primordia is very predictable at 137.5 °.  If you may note 137.5 divided by nine is 15.3 rounded off, in which 1+5+3=9.

There is a reason for this spiraling arrangement that almost makes it appear that sunflower seed heads are guided more by mathematics than genetics. Spirals create density which makes plant parts much stronger than if they arranged themselves in any other way such as in spoke fashion.
Sunflower Seed Spirals

Besides plants, animals take up spiraling physiological patterns as well like mollusk shells, arthropods such as spider webbing and insect egg laying, reptile scaling arrangements, horned bovids such as goats and impalas and slime molds.
Lacewing egg spirals
Spiral-horned goat 










Slime molds unto themselves are a very interesting arrangement for it is a society of individual specimens going through various life cycles together. Slime molds are polyphyletic as a grouping for they are collectively termed ‘slime molds’ due to similar character life stages making all appear the same, but share no inheritance from a common ancestry.

Different slime molds consist of different species. Fuligo septica, otherwise known as ‘dog vomit’ (because it appears as bright yellow barf) is made up of Myxogastria organisms. They are considered plasmodial in that they are acellular. Another slime mold group are the Protosteloids that are primarily microscopic amoebae that feed on yeast, bacteria and fungal spores, but there are other non-amoebozoan Protosteloids such as the Rhizaria parasitic protists, the marine slime nets Labyrinthulomycota and the cellular slime mold, Fonticula that has fungi ancestry.
Fuligo spetica or dog barf

Then there are the dictyostelid amoebae slime molds that may be found in water or in moist terrestrial ecosystems. Dictyostelid life cycles consist of an independent individual unicellular amoeba that exhibits nuclear fission in reproduction. Normal so far, as far as amoebas go, but when stress enters the Dictyostelid micro environment such as depletion of food or wetness, an individual amoeba will send out a chemical signal of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which cues the surrounding individual amoebas to congregate. New amoeba arrivals will then send out cAMP signals to concentrate the aggregation area. As cAMP diffuses out into the medium, this activity causes later arrivals to oscillate creating spirals projecting out from the epicenter of the concentration. As spirals form, they may be visually observed to slowly rotate.
Amoeboid slime mold spiral forming
Dictyostelium discoideum









The whole idea of the amoeboid massing is to form fruiting bodies known as sorocaps that produce spores to be picked up by the winds or passing animals to be carried to other environments. There, when favorable conditions appear, the spores germinate restarting the cycle with individual amoebae.

These magic nine based spirals also have their effect on us as well through vision. I can attest the photo below is strictly a picture. There are absolutely no Gifs involved. I assure you, it is a still photo. You can copy and paste it to validate the claim for yourself.

The reason the spiral pattern appears to move when indeed it is not, is due to our binocular visual perception. Any animal viewing this that does not possess binocular vision would see what it simply is…a stationary photo.

With binocular vision, perception of reality switches back and forth between different images presented separately to the two eyes. These visual signals sent to the brain for functioning interpretation are what make us aware of our environment.

Our binocular vision has its roots in our ancestry that were the original primates living in trees. To move about in treetops and canopies, binocular vision was developed. As far as sight goes, primates are distinguished by frontally directed, highly convergent orbits, which are associated with stereoscopic vision.

Stereoscopic vision requires specialized neural mechanisms, which in turn led to a larger brain. With stereoscopic vision, depth perception and orbit morphology was vital, key to an animal that relied on precise motor skills directed by visual perception when hopping and jumping from limb to limb.

But there is a downside to binocular vision when the animal is no longer hanging out in the tree canopies and is simply attempting to interpret a spiral photo. When you view this spiral photo with your binocular vision there is no one image for both eyes to focus on. A single stimulus is dominant and it remains for a few seconds before a switch to the other stimulus occurs. Nonetheless, there is a fraction of a second delay in the switch, so the transition itself is not instantaneous. It is this interpreted misconception in visually perceiving a traveling wave that makes the image appear to have movement.

In this number nine segment, I melded a few concepts into one to come up with the #9 expose. If you disagree with my thoughts, please state so and give a reason as to why. Believe me, if you prove me wrong, I will indeed correct it, for it won’t be the first time I’ve been proven wrong.

Resonance:
When we hear the word resonance, we feel positivity for it ejects images of regularities associated with our predictable lives. We like predictability and that is why astronomers have used resonance…to predict the regular movements of celestial bodies like the moon, sunspot cycles and comet trajectory paths. Resonance gives us a sense of predicting the future and that gives us comfort in knowing regularity.

But resonance can rear a negative concern as well. For long term analysis, a 3:1 resonance has been developed by our highly sophisticated computers that astronomers now use. Computer calculations show that an asteroid orbit undergoes a 3:1 resonance with Jupiter creating an irregular path. This can predicate an asteroid earthbound trajectory. Let’s explain.

In our solar system when dealing with the Asteroid Belt, Jupiter creates an opening and Mars finishes by kicking the field goal when it comes to an asteroid originating from the belt slamming into Earth. An astronomical example of chaos is that an asteroid’s orbit can at random, change violently. On cosmic standards, this asteroid irregularity can occur in short periods of 10,000 years.

A 3:1 resonance asteroid is not affected by the asteroid’s eccentricity of how fat or thin its orbit is. An asteroid with only a 0.3 eccentricity or more crosses Mars’ orbit and every time it does, if close enough to the planet it will generate much higher eccentricity sending the asteroid off as a projectile into a totally different irregular orbit in chaotic fashion.

Discovered by Daniel Kirkwood in 1866, there lies the Kirkwood gap where asteroids are swept clean by Mars’ gravitational force. Jupiter creates the 3:1 asteroid resonance that sends it towards Mars only to kick it away. Mars at any time could kick an asteroid directly earthwards.

As resonance doesn’t bother with eccentricity, asteroid size has no affect either. The total mass of the Asteroid Belt is smaller than Earth’s moon. Although most asteroids are small, it’s estimated that 750,000 are as large as 0.6 mi/1 km in diameter and at least 200 asteroids that are larger than 60 mi/100 km in diameter. An asteroid this massive hitting Earth would be devastating releasing the equivalency of 4,512,000 of kinetic energy upon entry into Earth’s atmosphere creating a crater 811.3 mi/13,056 km in diameter on impact.    

If one of these largest of asteroids were ever sent our way…goodbye life as we know it.

Asteroid earthbound

Universal Multi-Tasking:
Speaking of life as we know it, there are three separate theories by quantum physicists stating we might not be alone after all, even the universe may be multiverse, chock full of parallel universes.

Quantum mechanics is the sub atomic particle field of study. All atoms are composed of smaller particles that are three-dimensional in space while obeying the laws of quantum mechanics. Some subatomic particles are bosons, quarks and leptons.

The ‘Theory of Everything’ (ToE) refers to the presence of a single all-encompassing particle that links together all the aspects of the physical universe. In the quest to find the phantom in the ToE, quantum theoretical physicists must evaluate the components of the atom (reverse engineering) and have taken three routes on this expedition.

The first, the ‘Copenhagen Interpretation’ was devised in 1927 by the German physicist, Werner Heisenberg inspired by his working as an assistant to the Danish physicist, Niels Bohr who came up with the concept in 1920. This theory essentially states that a quantum particle doesn’t exist in one state or another, but in all the possible states it can occur in at once. The reasoning is that when once observed, the quantum particle will only choose one of its states to be observed. That is why a photon of light is sometimes observed as a particle, but sometimes observed as a wave.

The second, ‘String Theory’ developed in 1974 by the Japanese-American theoretical physicist; Michio Kaku goes even beyond sub components of the atom. It states that the originator of all isn’t really a particle at all, but a field level equivalent in one dimension that has harmonics due to continual vibration. This vibration is much like the string on a guitar when it is plucked. String theory does however possess a point particle to higher dimensions known as a brane. This ultimately leads to subatomic particles like quarks that lead to electrons and in turn to atoms and on down the line we go to molecules and us.

The third and final is the ‘Many Worlds Theory’ formulated by the brilliant mathematician and quantum physicist, Hugh Everett III that has recently gained momentum in astronomer popularity. Through quantum mechanics, the theory proposes that for each possible outcome of any given action, while in negating the observer, the universe splits to accommodate each one.

Although all three of these theories are on a different route the final destination or endpoint is the same. In deriving that endpoint they all are passing the same scenery and that is a parallel universe. The theories allude to the fact that our universe is encased in a bubble existing alongside other bubbled universes. The differences even have somewhat of an emergence where one states there are infinite universes (many worlds) and they can come into contact with one another (string) with gravity waves as the flow or conduit between the universes. The third remains neutral (Copenhagen), but in stating all particles exist in different states at once gives credence to the multiverse scenario.
Parallel bubbled multiverses 

What this implies if you had a near death experience, you in the other universe actually died. This would be due to the fact that all universes are related in particle physics and time, but different in history where what happens in one universe’s state, the opposite happens in another. The relationship is that when universes interact, the birth, or the Big Bang of another universe is born.

This is a mind boggling assumption as sex follows those exact rules. To procreate a couple interacts, as in the case with universes, transferring genes (particles) to give birth (Big Bang) to a new being (universe).

A Factoid or Two:
Earth is orbiting the sun at 67,000 mph/10,786.05 kph, which is roughly 18.6 miles/29.93 kilometers per second. In turn the weight of the sun’s light on Earth’s surface is 2 lbs per square mile or 1 kg per 2.85 square kilometers.


In Resonance Given,
BJA
08/02/2014